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Author Guidelines

I. Types of Contribution 

1. Full length articles (Regular Papers) 

Original papers should report the results of original research. Full length articles are usually up to 8.000 words. 

2. Review articles 

Reviews should address a theme of interest for Neotropical bat biology. They may be submitted or invited. Review articles are usually up to 12.000 words. 

3. Short communications 

Are meant to highlight important issues and should be less than 4.000 words. 

II. Manuscript submission 

a) Original work 

Submission of an article implies that it is not being considered contemporaneously for publication elsewhere. Submission of multi-authored manuscripts must be with the consent of all the participating authors. 

b) Covering letter (to be inserted on the box "Comments to the Editor"

Submission of a manuscript must be accompanied by a covering letter stating that: 

· The work is all original research carried out by the authors. 

· All authors agree with the contents of the manuscript and its submission to the journal. 

· No part of the research has been published in any form elsewhere, unless it is fully acknowledged in the manuscript. 

· Any research in the paper not carried out by the authors is fully acknowledged in the manuscript. 

· All appropriate ethics and other approvals were obtained for the research. 

Manuscripts may be rejected if they involve protocols which are inconsistent with commonly accepted norms of animal research. 

c) Confirmation of submission 

After the editorial office has received your submission, you will receive a confirmation, and information about the further proceeding. The associate editor will carry out a light review and decide whether a paper falls within the scope of the journal and is of sufficient standard to be sent for independent peer-review. Any manuscript not being sent for independent peer-review will be returned to the author(s) as soon as possible. 

d) Conflicts of Interest 

To allow scientists, the public, and policy makers to make more informed judgments about published research, Chiroptera Neotropical adopts a strong policy on conflicts of interest and disclosure. Authors should acknowledge all sources of funding and any direct financial benefits that could result from publication. Editors likewise require reviewers to disclose current or recent association with authors and other special interest in this work. 

e) Potential reviewers 

Authors are at liberty to suggest the names of up to three potential reviewers (with full contact details). Potential reviewers should not include anyone with whom the authors have collaborated during the research being submitted. Please use the box "Comments to the Editor" on the first part of submissions process to indicate the potential reviewers. 

III. Setting up and formatting your manuscript 

1. General information 

Send your manuscript in *.doc or *.rtf format. Set up your document one-sided, using double spacing and wide (3 cm) margins. Avoid full justification, i.e., do not use a constant right-hand margin. Ensure that each new paragraph is clearly indicated. Number every page of the manuscript, including the title page, references tables, etc. Present tables and figure legends on separate pages at the end of the manuscript. Layout and conventions must conform with those given in this guide to authors. Journal style has changed over time so do not use old issues as a guide. Number all pages consecutively. Italics are not to be used for expressions of Latin origin, for example, in vivo, et al., per se. Use decimal points (not commas); use a space for thousands (10 000 and above). 

2. Title pages and mentioning of authors' names 

The first page must contains the title title of the manuscript, as well as abstract and keywords (see sections IV.1 and IV.2 for further details). Please do not state authors' names anywhere else in your manuscript, nor in the figure captions. An exception is the quotation of own work. Authors names and affiliation will be inserted by the author on the correspondent fields during the submission process (online process). If the manuscript is accepetd for publication, the author will be required to send fullnames, affiliation and addresses of all co-authors.  

3. Language 

Please make sure that your manuscript is written in excellent English. Authors who are not writing in their native language are encouraged to have their manuscript proofread prior to submission by a native speaker (who is also a scientist and works with similar topics) or by a professional scientific translator. We recommend the translation agency 'Katzenhaus Translations' (, which is specialized in Biology."

IV. Structure of the manuscript 

1. First title page 

a) Title of manuscript 

State the title of the manuscript. The title should be concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible. Remember: if the readers do not find the title interesting, they will simply give up reading the rest of your paper. The title should inform the main topic of your study, the main organisms studied and, in some cases, also where it took place (habitat, biome etc.). 

b) Abstract 

Provide a concise and factual abstract (maximum length of 250 words). The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the methods, the principal results, major points of discussion, and conclusions. An abstract is often presented separate from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. References should therefore be avoided, but if essential, they must be cited in full, without reference to the reference list. Non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided. 

c) Keywords 

Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Avoid the use of entire phrases as keywords and do not repeat words that were already used in the title. Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. Do not use terms that have already been used in the title. 

3. Introduction 

State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background to the international context in which the research is carried out. 

4. Materials and methods 

Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be replicated. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described. 

5. Results 

Provide your main results in a concise manner. Avoid overlap between figures, tables, and text. 

6. Discussions and Conclusions 

Indicate significant contributions of your findings, their limitations, advantages and possible applications. Discuss your own results in the light of other research, based on your results. Do not simply repeat your results, instead present your interpretations and generalizations. 

7. Acknowledgements 

Place acknowledgements as a separate section after the discussion and before the references. Include information on grants received and all appropriate ethics and other approvals obtained for the research. 

8. Appendices 

If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: (Eq. A.1), (Eq. A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, (Eq. B.1) and so forth. 

9. References 

Assertions made in the paper that are not supported by your research must be justified by appropriate references. Follow the journal format for references precisely. Ensure all references cited in the text are in the reference list (and vice versa). 

10. Captions, tables, and figures 

Present these, in this order, at the end of the manuscript. They are described in more detail below (see section VI.). High-resolution graphics files must always be provided separate from the main text file in the final version accepted for publication. 

Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions on a separate page, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration or table. Keep text in the illustrations and tables themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used. If possible, submit all figures as separate JPG or TIFF files. When it is not possible to do that, insert graphs, diagrams and schemes in a separate text file. 

11. Footnotes 

Footnotes are not allowed. 

12. Nomenclature and units 

Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI) for all scientific and laboratory data. If other quantities are mentioned, give their equivalent in SI. 

Common names must be in lower-case except proper nouns. All common names must be followed by a scientific name in parentheses in italics. For example, vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus). Where scientific names are used in preference to common names they should be in italics and the genus should be reduced to the first letter after the first mention. For example, the first mention is given as Desmodus rotundusand subsequent mentions are given as D. rotundus

V. Referencing 

1. Citations in the text 

Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Unpublished results and personal communications should not be in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. Conference proceedings, abstracts and grey literature (research reports and limited circulation documents) are not acceptable citations. Citation of a reference as 'in press' means that the item has been accepted for publication. 

2. Citing and listing of web references 

As a minimum, the full URL and last access date should be given. Any further information, if known (author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list. 

3. Citing in the text 

Citations in the text should be: 

Single author: the author's name (without initials, unless there is ambiguity), the year of publication; 

Two authors: both authors' names, the year of publication; use '&' between names. Three or more authors: first author's name followed by et al., the year of publication. Citations may be made directly (or parenthetically). Groups of references should be given chronologically with the earliest first and if several from the same year then they should be given alphabetically. If there are several from the same author in the same year then they are given as author, yeara, b (eg 1996a,b) (not yeara, yearb) 

Examples: "as demonstrated (Allan & Jones 1995; Smith et al. 1995; Woodbridge 1995; Allan 1996a, b; 1999). Kramer et al. (2000) have recently shown ...." 

4. List of references 

References should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters "a", "b", "c", etc., placed after the year of publication. You may use the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and the full journal reference to cite articles in press. The format for listing references is given below and must be followed precisely. 


1. Journal article: 

Kalka M. & Kalko E.K.V. 2006. Gleaning bats as underestimated predators of herbivorous insects: diet of Micronycteris microtis(Phyllostomidae) in Panama. Journal of Tropical Ecology 22: 1-10. 

2. Book chapter: 

Cruz-Neto A. & Jones K.E. 2006. Exploring the evolution of the basal metabolic rate in bats. In: Functional and evolutionary ecology of bats (edited by Zubaid A.; McCracken G.F. & Kunz T.H.), pp. 56-89. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 

3. Book, authored: 

Wilson D.E. 1997. Bats in question. Smithsonian Books, Washington. 

4. Book, edited: 

Zubaid A.; McCracken G.F. & Kunz T.H. (editors). 2006. Functional and evolutionary ecology of bats. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 

5. MSc Thesis and PhD Dissertation: 

Mello M.A.R. 2006. Interactions between the bat Sturnira lilium(Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) and plants of the family Solanaceae. PhD Dissertation, Universidade Estadual de Campinas. 

6. Institutional author (book): 

World Conservation Union. 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of threatened species. IUCN, Gland. 

7. In press articles: 

Oprea M.; Brito D.; Mello M.A.R. & Aguiar L.M.S. in press. Ten years of Chiroptera Neotropical: accomplishments and future directions. Chiroptera Neotropical. 

VI. Voucher Specimens 

The manuscript should mention the museum or institution where the specimens are deposited, when appropriate, as proof of the validity of the taxonomic identification. 

VII. Manuscript handling after acceptance 

1. Proofs 

When your manuscript is received it is considered to be in its final form. Proofs are not to be regarded as 'drafts'. 

One set of page proofs in PDF format will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author, to be checked for typesetting/editing and should be returned within 2 weeks of receipt, preferably by e-mail. No changes in, or additions to, the accepted (and subsequently edited) manuscript will be allowed at this stage. Any amendments may be charged to the author. Proof reading is solely the author's responsibility. 

A form with queries from the copyeditor may accompany your proofs. Please answer all queries and make any corrections or additions required. Chiroptera Neotropical reserves the right to proceed with publication if corrections are not communicated. Return corrections within 2 weeks of receipt of the proofs. Should there be no corrections, please confirm this. 

Chiroptera Neotropical will do everything possible to get your article corrected and published as quickly and accurately as possible. In order to do this we need your help. When you receive the proof of your article for correction, it is important to ensure that all of your corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Subsequent corrections will not be possible, so please ensure your first sending is complete. Note that this does not mean you have any less time to make your corrections, just that only one set of corrections will be accepted. 

2. Offprints 

The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a PDF file of the article via e-mail.


Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  1. The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  2. The submission file is in Microsoft Word or RTF document file format.
  3. The text (in English) is double-spaced; uses a 12-point font (Times New Roman); pages and lines are numbered; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed after the text. Figures and illustrations should be in high resolution (150 dpi) only for final version.
  4. The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
  5. If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.

Copyright Notice

Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:

  • Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in Chiroptera Neotropical.
  • Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after its publication in Chiroptera Neotropical with proper citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).


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